Beware: this article is from 2015 and in Elixir world couple things changed a bit. Here you can find the updated version of this blog post.

What is wrong with gen_event?

I never used gen_event, I think it is a bad pattern.

At first it may look like a controversial statement, but I heard a lot of those complaints from other people. Originally, I heard that exact statement during the presentation made by Garrett Smith about pattern language - someone asked about that behavior at the end. More recently I heard similar thing in José Valim’s presentation about what will come next in Elixir.

It confuses me every time I hear that, so I want to investigate topic more deeply. But before we will dive into reasons and explanations, let’s recall what is the purpose of this behavior.

What is gen_event?

OTP introduces two different terms regarding that behavior - an event manager and event handler modules.

Responsibility of event manager is being a named object which can receive events. An event can be, for example: an error, an alarm, or some information that is to be logged. Inside manager we can have 0, 1 or more event handlers installed. Responsibility of the handler is to process an event.

When the event manager is notified about an event, it will be processed by all installed handlers. The easiest way to imagine that is to think about manager as a sink for incoming messages and handlers as different implementations which are writing messages to disk, database or terminal.

Another example can be taken from my implementation of Francesco Cesarini’s assignment called Wolves, Rabbits and Carrots simulation. Main purpose of that task is to introduce concurrency, but internally it is a simulation - so certain events are happening, and they will be broadcasted to the rest of entities.

In that case simulation_event_stream is an event manager:

 1 -module(simulation_event_stream).
 3 -export([ start_link/0,
 4           component_ready/1,
 5           notify/3, notify/4,
 6           attach_handler/1,
 7           remove_handler/1 ]).
 9 start_link() ->
10     {ok, Pid} = gen_event:start_link({local, ?MODULE}),
12     gen_event:add_handler(?MODULE, simulation_cli_handler, []),
13     component_ready(?MODULE),
15     {ok, Pid}.
17 component_ready(Name) ->
18     gen_event:notify(?MODULE, {Name, ready}).
20 notify(Name, Action, State) ->
21     gen_event:notify(?MODULE, {Name, Action, State}).
23 notify(Name, Pid, Action, State) ->
24     gen_event:notify(?MODULE, {Name, Pid, Action, State}).
26 attach_handler(Handler) ->
27     gen_event:add_handler(?MODULE, Handler, []).
29 remove_handler(Handler) ->
30     gen_event:delete_handler(?MODULE, Handler, []).

We can easily add and remove event handlers. The event manager essentially maintains a list of {Module, State} pairs, where each Module is an event handler, and State is the internal state of that event handler.

One of the handlers implementation - simulation_cli_handler - is related with writing messages to the console. It is the actual gen_event callback module, so all handlers are implementations of that abstraction:

 1 -module(simulation_cli_handler).
 2 -behavior(gen_event).
 4 -export([ init/1, handle_event/2,
 5           terminate/2, handle_call/2, handle_info/2, code_change/3 ]).
 7 init(_Args) ->
 8     {ok, []}.
10 handle_event(Msg, State) ->
11     Indicator = case Msg of
12         {_, planted, _} -> "[++]";
13         {_, born, _}    -> "[++]";
15         {_, eaten, _}   -> "[--]";
16         {_, died, _}    -> "[--]";
18         _               -> "[ii]"
19     end,
20     io:format("~s ~w ~n", [ Indicator, Msg ]),
22     {ok, State}.
24 code_change(_OldVsn, State, _Extra) ->
25     {ok, State}.
27 handle_call(_Request, State) ->
28     {ok, empty, State}.
30 handle_info(_Info, State) ->
31     {ok, State}.
33 terminate(_Args, _State) ->
34     ok.

And the very important part in terms of the aforementioned complaints is that: when starting event manager, it is spawned as a process and each event handler is implemented as a callback module. But whole processing logic will be executed inside the same manager process.

Why it is problematic?

Let me reiterate on that - after spawning gen_event manager and installing handlers on it, handlers exist in the same process as the manager.

That causes two biggest issues - handlers are not executed concurrently and they are not isolated from each other, in the process sense. But there is more - we heard explicitly that I never used gen_event, I think it is a bad pattern and whole argumentation about that can be summed by:

So let’s analyze the root causes of each complaint separately.

Not widely used in the erts and OTP

First objection related to that behavior is that it is not widely used in the Erlang core libraries and platform itself. And that’s partially true - as a behavior it is used for error_logger, alarm_handler and error_handler facilities. Is that a major reason to drop the behavior completely? No, but I think that it is a guide that responsibilities and use cases of that behavior are kind of limited, and much narrower than those we are trying to assign them.

It is the same process for all handlers

This one was not explicitly stated on the list, but it manifests itself when it comes to failure handling and supervision. And also it has another, really significant drawback - which is obvious when you will think about it - all handlers are invoked synchronously and sequentially in one process.

In order to dispatch an event to manager you can use one of two gen_event functions - notify and sync_notify. With first you can dispatch event as quickly as possible, but you have no backpressure applied, and you can end up in the situation when events are incoming really fast, but processing is slower. That will cause process queue to grow and eventually it can cause even a crash. It does not check also the manager presence, so you can easily throw messages to the void. From the other hand - synchronous dispatch waits until event will be processed by all handlers, which can be slow and eventually will become a system bottleneck.

This problem is also very nicely described in the Nick DeMonner talk from this year ElixirConf US conference - check this out if you are interested. Elixir GenEvent implementation has also third function - ack_notify which acknowledges the incoming messages, and it is something softer than sync_notify, but still asynchronous when it comes to processing.

It is hard to supervise

When you are approaching Erlang as a newcomer and you are really fascinated by the mantra everything should be a process, the worst possible thing that can happen is to have some thoughts about event handling from other platforms or languages. Why? Well my “oh crap” moment about how things really work, came when I started an observer, and looked for the handler processes. And then I realized, oh crap, they are not processes at all.

This behavior hides the complexity underneath, and it has really good assumptions regarding that model of dispatching (if we separate handlers from manager, reliable dispatch is much harder to achieve e.g. when it comes to fault tolerance), but it is simply counterintuitive when it comes to the Erlang philosophy, especially for the newcomers.

Failure handling

Another obvious thought when you realize that handlers and manager coexist in the same process is that: What happen if there is a fault in the installed event handler module?

It may sound strange at the beginning, but faulty event handler will be silently removed. It does produce an error report printed on terminal, but nothing more. Moreover, well known monitoring techniques, such as link or monitors cannot be used with the event handler module, because it is not a process. And a faulty event handler code does not crash the manager.

But we can use different facility exposed by gen_event called add_sup_handler. It means that the connection between process that wants to dispatch an event and the handler will be supervised. What does it mean? If the event handler is deleted due to a fault, the manager sends a message {gen_event_EXIT, Handler, Reason} to the caller. It means that we need to provide additional process, often called a guard for the possibly faulty handler. Then, dispatching of an event will happen through that guardian process, and when it receives the failure message (via handle_info) we can act accordingly to the requirements.

Keep in mind that underneath it uses links, not monitors - event handler chapter from Learn You Some Erlang For Great Good! has really good explanation why it may be dangerous and what issues it causes. Long story short, after using add_sup_handler you need to be cautious when it comes to the event manager shutdown.

What is interesting, Elixir’s version of that behavior (GenEvent) has solved this problem by exposing add_mon_handler/3, which uses monitor under the hood. Still both solutions have another problem - {gen_event_EXIT, Handler, Reason} message will not be delivered if manager process will crash. It is another edge case for which you have to be prepared - you either need to monitor manager or link it and trap exits in all handlers.

State management

One more thing that I think is not emphasized enough is the state management and that you should always pass down state to your handlers. It is really well described in the example code above, but also when it comes to the fault tolerance - each handler can be removed due to failure operation and after restoring it we can pass the new state. If we will preserve state of that handler in the manager (and we will build facility for exposing that), it may cause strange and hard to debug side effects related with the state of the newly created handler.


Is there something that we can use instead? Without using third parties (like uwiger/gproc) I am afraid that there is nothing like that in the core.

GenRouter example from José Valim's presentation.

If you are interested - in Elixir incoming GenRouter behavior looks really promising. Of course, it is still really far away from the core and its future is uncertain, but whole concept is described in the José Valim’s talk - there is even an example for that particular use case with DynamicIn - BroadcastOut, which will represent a process based replacement for GenEvent.


If you think more wisely about that, it is not a particularly useful behavior, because it has very limited capabilities and responsibilities. Maybe that is the reason why it is used internally so rarely. It means also, that we should not bend it to our use cases. If the specific application is very similar to the one used inside OTP (I mean the error_logger) and we do not need concurrency support when it comes to the processing logic, we can safely use it. Otherwise, we incur troubles on ourselves. :wink: